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Definition of Depression: Feelings of depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of us feel this way at one time or another for short periods. But true clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with everyday life for an extend...
Definition of Depression: Feelings of depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of us feel this way at one time or another for short periods. But true clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with everyday life for an extended period of time. Low or irritable mood most of the time; A loss of pleasure in usual activities; Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much; A big change in appetite, often with weight gain or loss; Tiredness and lack of energy; Feelings of worthlessness, self-hate, and guilt; Difficulty concentrating; Feeling hopeless or helpless; Repeated thoughts of death or suicide; Low self-esteem is common with depression. It is also common to have sudden bursts of anger and a lack of pleasure from activities that normally make you happy, including sex.
Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. Many people feel anxious, or nervous, when faced with a problem at work, before taking a test, or making an important decision. Anxiety disorders, however, are different. They can cause such distress that it interferes with a person's ability to lead a normal life.
An anxiety disorder is a serious mental illness. For people with anxiety disorders, worry and fear are constant and overwhelming, and can be crippling.
There are several recognized types of anxiety disorders, including:
Symptoms vary depending on the type of anxiety disorder, but general symptoms include:
The exact cause of anxiety disorders is unknown; but anxiety disorders -- like other forms of mental illness -- are not the result of personal weakness, a character flaw, or poor upbringing. As scientists continue their research on mental illness, it is becoming clear that many of these disorders are caused by a combination of factors, including changes in the brain and environmental stress.
Like other brain illnesses, anxiety disorders may be caused by problems in the functioning of brain circuits that regulate fear and other emotions. Studies have shown that severe or long-lasting stress can change the way nerve cells within these circuits transmit information from one region of the brain to another. Other studies have shown that people with certain anxiety disorders have changes in certain brain structures that control memories linked with strong emotions. In addition, studies have shown that anxiety disorders run in families, which means that they can at least partly be inherited from one or both parents, like the risk for heart disease or cancer. Moreover, certain environmental factors -- such as a trauma or significant event -- may trigger an anxiety disorder in people who have an inherited susceptibility to developing the disorder.
ADHD medications are available in short-acting (immediate-release), intermediate-acting, and long-acting forms. It may take some time for a doctor to find the most effective drug, dosage, and schedule for someone with ADHD.
A class of drugs called psychostimulants or stimulants have been used to effectively treat ADHD for several decades. These medicines help those with ADHD to focus their thoughts and ignore distractions. Stimulant medications are effective in 70% to 80% of patients.
Stimulants are used to treat both moderate and severe ADHD. They may be helpful in children, adolescents, and adults who are having difficulty with ADHD symptoms at school or at work, as well as at home. Some stimulants are approved for use in children over age 3, while others are approved for children over age 6.
A list of stimulant drugs to treat ADHD includes:
Note that only some of these stimulants, like Adderall XR, Concerta, Vyvanse, Quillivant XR, and Focalin XR, are FDA-approved for use in adults.
In cases where stimulants don’t work or cause unpleasant side effects, nonstimulants might help. The first nonstimulant medication approved by the FDA was Strattera. It's now used in children, adolescents, and adults. The FDA then approved a second nonstimulant drug, Intuniv, for children and teens between ages 6 and 17 and recently approved the non-stimulant Kapvay for use alone or in combination with a stimulant to enhance effectiveness. These medications can all improve concentration and impulse control.
When stimulants and nonstimulants are not effective or well-tolerated or when certain conditions are present, several other medications are available to treat ADHD. These medications include:
Stimulant medications used to treat ADHD sometimes have side effects, but these tend to happen early in treatment and are usually mild and short-lived. The most common side effects of stimulants include:
Rarely, medications for ADHD can cause more serious side effects. For instance, some stimulants are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular problems. They may also exacerbate psychiatric conditions like depression, psychosis, or anxiety. So, before you or your children start taking any ADHD medication, make sure you talk to a doctor about your medical and family history, as well as discuss the potential risks.
In most cases, side effects can be relieved using one of the following strategies:
Always consult your health care provider before making any changes in your ADHD treatment regimen.
Insomnia, or sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired. While the term is sometimes used to describe a disorder demonstrated by polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep, this sleep disorder is often practically defined as a positive response to either of two questions: "Do you experience difficulty sleeping?" or "Do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?"
Insomnia is most often thought of as both a medical sign and a symptom that can accompany several sleep, medical, and psychiatric disorders characterized by a persistent difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep or sleep of poor quality. Insomnia is typically followed by functional impairment while awake. Insomnia can occur at any age, but it is particularly common in the elderly. Insomnia can be short term (up to three weeks) or long term (above 3–4 weeks), which can lead to memory problems, depression, irritability and an increased risk of heart disease and automobile related accidents.
Celexa® (citalopram hydrobromide) Tablets Celexa (citalopram) is an antidepressant in a group of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Celexa is used to treat depression. Celexa may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Nuvigil - Generic Name: armodafinil (ar moe DAF i nil) Nuvigil (armodafinil) is a medication that promotes wakefulness. Nuvigil is used to treat excessive sleepiness caused by sleep apnea, narcolepsy, or shift work sleep disorder. Nuvigil may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Remeron (mirtazapine) is a tetracyclic antidepressant. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression. It is thought to increase the activity of norepinephrine and serotonin which help elevate mood. Remeron is used to treat major depressive disorder. Remeron may also be used for other purposes not listed in this...
What is Restyl ( alprazolam )? Alprazolam belongs to a group of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). It works by slowing down the movement of chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced. This results in a reduction in nervous tension (anxiety).Alprazolam is used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and anxiety caused by...